ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C

Polyalkylene Glycol

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C are new Polyalkylene Glycol that guarantee high-performances in A/C Systems with CO2. COis a Refrigerant with a complex and delicate balance, which requires outstanding performances to the Lubricant. PAG for COoffer a better miscibility with COin a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. This means: excellent lubricating properties and higher efficiency for the Refrigeration System.

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C for COhave a reduced Hygroscopicity (if compared to normal PAG, which is unprotected to hydroxyl and used with other refrigerants). These Oils also have High Chemical Stability, Thermal and Hydrolysis Resistance.

COoffers unfavorable characteristics in normal Refrigeration Applications, with a very high discharging pressure and a very low critical temperature (31°C – 74 bar). This situation requires sub and supercritical operating conditions in single-stage Systems with delivery pressure exceeding 100 bar. In addition, the energy performance is lower than the conventional vapor compression process.

However, in applications with potentially high rates of dispersion and where flammable refrigerants cannot be used for safety reasons, there are opportunities to use CO2. For example, COis a valid option for Air Conditioning Systems in Automotive. For commercial and industrial refrigeration units, COcan be used as a secondary fluid in a Cascade System.

Most of the conventional lubricants such as Mineral and Alkylbenzene oils are not soluble with CO2. The Polyol Ester (POE) show good miscibility properties, however this may cause a drastic Viscosity reduction.

PAG for COshow miscibility with COin a wide range of temperatures and lubricant concentrations.But the viscosity properties of Polyalkylene glycols remain unchanged and the decrease of viscosity (observed with POE) does not happen in PAG lubricants under dilution with CO2.

 

Key Benefit :

  Miscibility with COin a wide range of lubricant concentration and temperature ;

  Reduced hygroscopic than a PAG without protection in the process of absorbing water ;

  High chemical stability to heat and hydrolysis ;

  Excellent lubricating capacity ;

  Protection Terminals Technology and Protective Element Choice (Capped or Multi-capped)* ;

 

Method and Reference Unit

VALUE Reference Method

ISO VG

46

Kinematic Viscosity @ 40°C (cSt)

49.7 ASTM D 445

Kinematic Viscosity @ 100°C (cSt)

10.7 ASTM D 445

Viscosity Index

213 ASTM D 2270

Pour Point (°C)

-49 ASTM D 97

Flash Point (°C)

>200 ASTM D 92

Density @ 15°C (g/cm³)

0.998

ASTM D 4052

Humidity Content (ppm) 300

ASTM E 1064

Total Acidity (mg KOH/g) 0.02

ASTM D 974

Colour (APHA) 20

ASTM D 1209

Capping efficiency (%) 95

IM

4-Ball wear scar -40kg/1hr (mm) 0.53

ASTM D 4172

Cu corrosion test 1a

ASTM D 130

Stream turbine corrosion test Pass

ASTM D 665(a)

Miscibility in CO2 :

ASHRAE 86**

Upper CST: 1% RFL-X in CO2

30.9

5% RFL-X in CO2

30.9

30% RFL-X in CO2

26.0

50% RFL-x in CO2

13.0

Density Inversion temp: 1% RFL-X in CO2

-31.0

5% RFL-X in CO2

-31.0

30% RFL-X in CO2

31.0

50% RFL-x in CO2

-29.2

* Several performance advantages are associated with the use of PAG for COas Synthetic Lubricants for Refrigeration with CO2. A typical Polyalkylene Glycol generally consists of Polymer chains terminated with a Hydroxyl group that is chemically active at one end. On the contrary, a protected PAG is a chemically inactive group at both ends of the molecule. PAG for CO2, based on the “capped PAG” technology, provide effective lubrication for Refrigeration Units and compression. Protection technology (“capped” technology) also provides improved lubricity for COSystems. High efficiency of the process typically results in about 95% for PAG for the COrange.

** Method for measuring the floc point (waxing tendency) of refrigeration-grade oils.

 

Remark ;

It is suggested a dosage as close as possible to the quantity needed. For the biggest formats, it is recommended to quickly close the container and keep it in a cool and dry place in order to avoid the formation of moisture. Keep the product between 25°C and 40°C. Do not expose to sunlight.

 

Focus more on :

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C in CO2.

 

 

Even the upper critical temperature remains constant over a wide range of lubricant concentrations. The lower critical temperature does not occur, even if an inversion of density in the liquid phases is observed in the tested range of concentration.

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Critical Solution and Inversion Density.

 

% Composition Lubricant

Critical Solution Temperature (°C) Density Inversion Temperature (°C)

1.0

30.9 Suspended Droplets

5.1

30.9 -31.0
15.3 30.9

-31.0

30.3 26.0

-31.0

50.0 13.0

-29.2

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Solubility, Density and Viscosity.

Experimental measurements of the liquid density, vapor pressure (solubility) and the viscosity of the liquid were recorded for PAG 46 for COconcentrations in 70, 80, 90 and 95% of weight, in a temperature range -40 °C to +125 °C.

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Density.

 

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Viscosity and Vapour Pressure.

 

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Lubricity Properties.

The development of the trans-critical COSystems requires special Lubricants because of High Pressure and subsequently higher load on the bearings. The extreme PAG pressure and anti-wear properties are superior to those of POE and other synthetic materials, such as PVEs.

These lubricating properties are kept under High-Pressure conditions. PAG 46 for CO(“capped” technology based), provides efficient lubrication for refrigeration units. These improved lubricating properties for COSystems are obtained as a result of the terminals protection technology (capped technology).

In order to simulate as accurately as possible the COpressurized environment, Falex Block-on-Ring test was used to evaluate the effect on the PAG 46 for COproperties using the following parameters:

 

Load Steps

+50 lbs, followed by +20 lbs

Rotation Speed

600 rpm

Atmosphere

CO2

Overpressure

10 bar (150 psi)

Step Duration

5 minutes

Temperature

Min 90C

Ring

Falex S10, SAE 4620 steel, Rc5 8-63 6-12 rms

Blocks

Falex H-30, SAE 01 steel, Rc 27-33, 4-8 rms

 

The load pressure (lbs) and estimated wear (mm) were recorded for PAG 46 for the CO(and with the addition of additives EP / AW – PAG 46 for CO2):

 

 

20 lbs increase:

 

 

ORAFON PREMIUM PAG 46 C Stability to hydrolysis.

Unprotected Polyalkylene glycols. Hydroxyl are very Hygroscopic and can absorb thousand ppm of water if exposed to humid conditions. Despite this PAG lubricants do not hydrolyze under normal operating conditions. Therefore problems related to water consumption in alternative synthetic lubricants (such as esters of polyols) cannot be caused – problems such as corrosion or ice formation in the expansion/capillary valve.

Due to the replacement of the hydroxyl terminal group with an alkyl species in the PAG 46 for CO2, the hygroscopicity is lower than in a free PAG.

While the water absorbed by the PAG is not free (but linked to PAG) and does not cause problems that may be associated with the free moisture, the reduced hygroscopicity exhibited by PAG 46 for COcan be obtained through a careful choice of the end-capped hydroxyl. A maximum water content (0.05%) has been defined for PAG 46 for CO2.

 

 

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